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Showing posts with label Sejarah Islam. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sejarah Islam. Show all posts
Saturday, August 3, 2013
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Kontribusi Peradaban Islam Dalam Dunia Cosmetology

kosmetik islam

Dahulu di Andalusia, Spanyol hidup seorang fisikawan dan ahli bedah bernama Abul Qasim Al Zahrawi, dalam bahasa latin beliau disebut dengan Albucassis. Beliau menulis sebuah karya monumental yaitu ensiklopedia tentang pengobatan berjudul Al Tasreef sebanyak 30 jilid.

 Ensiklopedia ini telah diterjemahkan ke bahasa Latin dan dijadikan sebagai texbook di banyak Universitas di Eropa sejak abad ke-12 hingga abad ke-17. Ensiklopedia muslim inilah yang memuat pertama kali tentang cosmetology (ilmu tentang dunia kosmetik).

Dalam ensiklopedia tersebut memuat beberapa ilmu tentang kosmetik meliputi deodorant, hand lotions,dan parfum. Ada juga mengenai pengharum (sejenis pengharum ruangan) dan lipstik.

Dalam hadits nabi banyak sekali yang memerintahkan agar seorang muslim membersihkan diri baik jiwa maupun raganya. Oleh karena itu Al Zahrawi juga menciptakan pembersih baju sekaligus pewangi baju. Sehingga kaum muslimin pada era beliau bisa lebih terlihat "excellene".
Friday, July 12, 2013
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Klasifikasi Guru dan Peranannya Dalam Pendidikan Khilafah Abbasiyah

pendidikan islam

Dari zaman dulu hingga sekarang guru memiliki peranan yang sangat penting dalam membangun peradaban di suatu negara. Maka sangat layak penghormatan yang tinggi diberikan kepada mereka. Guru dalam pendidikan islam merupakan  organ penting untuk mentransfer ilmu pengetahuan islam sekaligus membina kaum muslimin agar menjadi pribadi yang tangguh, memiliki syakhsiyyah (kepribadian) islam serta  siap membela agama Allah.

Pada abad pertengahan yang merupakan salah satu titik puncak zaman keemasan islam yaitu era khilafah Abbasiyah ada beberapa klasifikasi guru mulai dari tipe guru, pakaian, perserikatan, dan sebagainya. Berikut yang kami dapatkan :

Pakaian guru
Selama kekhilafahan Abbasiyah para guru mengikuti gaya Persia, mengenakan tutup kepala Persia, Celana lebar (laki-laki), rok besar (perempuan), memakai rompi dan jaket ala Persia. Semuanya ditutup dengan jubbah atau aba manterl luar dan taylasan di atas surban

Wednesday, June 19, 2013
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Dari Tai Chi Master Hingga Muslim Kungfu Master

tai chi master
Anda tentunya sudah pernah menonton film "Tai Chi Master". Film yang dibintangi Jet-Li ini adalah salah satu film silat yang diproduksi di negara China. Fil ini sebenarnya menceritakan bagaimana kisah Zhang San-Feng seorang legenda Tai Chi mempelajari silat tersebut.  Sedikit review, menarik sekali  ketika Jet-Li (sbg.Jun Bao) mempelajari Tai Chi untuk melawan Tien-bo (saudara angkatnya) yang telah nyeleweng dari jalan yang benar (versinya film ya). Ia mempelajari Tai Chi dengan susah payah yang akhirnya menguasai ilmu tersebut. Dan seperti biasanya (dalam film-film)  Tien Bo pun kalah melawan Jun Bao karena jurus Tai Chi yang dipakai Jun Bao.

Monday, June 10, 2013
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Puisi Sang Penakluk Konstantinopel (Saat Kecil)

Apakah anda pernah mengikuti lomba baca puisi, atau barangkali anda pandai membuat puisi ? hmm..puisi tentang apa yang biasa anda buat ?
Memang banyak saat ini orang yang bisa bahkan banyak seniman yang mahir membuat puisi. Siapa yang tak kenal dengan Kahlil Gibran, Taufik Ismail, Alm. W.S Rendra dan banyak lagi. Mereka adalah beberapa seniman yang pandai membuat puisi dan dikenang oleh banyak kalangan.

Tapi sudah tahukah anda, puisi dari seorang panglima terbaik saat dia masih kecil. Dia adalah Sultan Muhammad II bin Murrad atau lebih dikenal dengan Sultan Muhammad Al Fatih. Sang penakluk imperium Byzantium yang berpusat di Konstantinopel (sekarang bernama Istanbul, Turki)
Saat kecil, selain beliau dididik dengan ilmu pengetahuan islam. Dua syaikh terkenal yaitu Syeikh Aaq Syamsudin dan Syekh Ahmad Al Kurani. Dua Syaikh telah membentuk watak dan mental seorang Al Fatih kecil menjadi watak seorang ghazi. Selain itu beliau juga mempelajari banyak ilmu lain semisal geografi,sejarah termasuk ilmu tentang syair dan puisi.

Nah, di bawah ini adalah salah satu puisi karya beliau saat masih kecil :
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Matematikawan Muslim Khilafah Ustmaniyah (part 2 selesai)

 matematikawan ustmani
 Gambar : Salah satu halaman dari kitab Taqi al-Din bin Ma'ruf  Hisab al-munanjjimin wa-'l-jabr wa-' l-muqabala
Sumber: Perpustakaan Raya Sulaimaniah di Istanbuly, CarullahCollection

Setelah penaklukan Istanbul (dulu konstantinopel) oleh Muhammad Al Fatih (1451-1481) pada tahun 1453, Sultan sendiri mulai mendirikan pusat ilmu pengetahuan di Istanbul. Di Perpustakaan Istana Kekhilafahan Ustmani, ditemukan sejumlah salinan sejumlah buku tentang kedokteran, aritmatika, geometri, astronomi yang diterbitkan di negara lain pada waktu itu. Selama pemerintahannya, Muhammad Al Fatih mengundang para sarjana terkenal untuk belajar di Istanbul. Selama pemerintahannya, lembaga pendidikan baru, seperti Sahn-i Saman  dan Sekolah Enderun Palace di Istanbul, didirikan. Akibatnya, beberapa sarjana brilian muncul dan membuat kontribusi asli untuk ilmu pengetahuan pada masa pemerintahannya. Karya-karya Ali al-Qushji (w. 1474) dan Fathullah al-Shirwani itu (w. 1486) dua mahasiswa Qadizada al-Rumi (w. ca 1440) dari Samarkand, membuat kontribusi yang patut dicatat dalam dunia matematika. Sultan bersama cendekiawan Muslim dan non-Muslim di Istanbul  memerintahkan sarjana Yunani untuk menerjemahkan Geografi Ptolemeus ke dalam bahasa Arab dan untuk menggambar peta dunia. Selain cendekiawan Muslim dari dunia Muslim, ia juga mengundang seniman dan cendekiawan dari Eropa terutama Italia. Sultan juga mendorong para ulama waktu untuk menghasilkan karya di bidang mereka.
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Matematikawan Muslim Khilafah Ustmaniyah (part 1)

matematikawan muslim
Gambar : Sebuah miniatur permainan Matrak di kekhilafahan Ustmani diciptakan oleh Nasuh 'Ali al-Silahi al-Matraqi. Sumber: Topkapi Palace perpustakaan di Istanbul, MS H 1344.

Sebagian besar ulama selama dua abad pertama KhilafahUtsmani datang dari negara-negara Muslim dan kota Turki. Sekolah pertama (madrasah) yang dibangun kekhilafahan ini terletak di Iznik (Nicea) pada 1331 oleh Khalifah Kedua Ustmani, Orhan Beg (1326-1359) setelah dia menaklukkan kota itu pada 1331. Khalifah Orhan Beg mendirikan banyak yayasan dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhan keuangan madrasah. Ada salah satu madrasah bernama Iznik yang melatih siswa dalam ilmu-ilmu agama (al-'ulum al-diniyya) secara keseluruhan. Madrasah tersebut telah mencetak ulama terkenal seperti Dawud al-Qaysari (w. 1350) , Taj al-Din al-Garadi (dc 1360) dan Ala al-Din Aswad (w. 1393). Setelah penaklukan Bursa dan Edirne, negara membangun kembali sekolah baru dan infrastruktur pendidikan lainnya seperti lembaga medis dan sekolah dasar dibuka dan banyak ulama mulai berdatangan ke Kekhilafahan Ustmani. Ulama dari berbagai latar belakang ilmu telah banyak menghasilkan buku-buku yang sangat penting pada berbagai mata pelajaran termasuk matematika dan astronomi.  
Wednesday, May 29, 2013
Mengkaji Ulang  "Indonesia Merdeka"

Mengkaji Ulang "Indonesia Merdeka"

    
 mengkaji ulang indonesia merdeka

       Sejarah mencatat begitu beratnya perjuangan untuk membebaskan negeri ini (Indonesia) dari penjajahan. Terlepas dari pro dan kontra sejarah di negeri ini dikarenakan perbedaan sudut pandang ideologi serta kepentingan penguasa namun ada yang menurut saya menarik untuk dibahas tentang sebuah "kata".
Sebuah kata yang bisa dikatakan simbol titik tolak perubahan besar di Indonesia. Kata tersebut adalah "MERDEKA".
       Dulu ketika para pejuang kemerdekaan berusaha membebaskan negeri ini tak sedikit mereka mendapatkan penderitaan, penyiksaan bahkan pembunuhan secara keji.
Tuesday, May 7, 2013
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Jurnal Ilmiah Islam : " Terapi Pengobatan Menggunakan Music di Zaman Khilafah Ustmaniyah"

Ottoman Music Therapy
Nil Sari
(Professor Nil Sari, Ph. D., from Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medicine Faculty, Department of Deontology and History of Medicine, is a world expert scholar in the history of medicine, Islamic medicine and culture and Ottoman science and medicine. Professor Sari is also a key FSTC associate. Presently Professor Nil Sari is Head of the Medical Ethics and History Department, Istanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical School.)

Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. The theory of music therapy
3. Ottoman Turkish music modes as a mean of therapy
4. How was music therapy applied?
5. Appropriate use of music as a mean for developing one's self
6. Bibliography and references
6.1. Bibliography
6.2. Further reading
6.3. Articles on music on www.MuslimHeritage.com

***
1. Introduction
Is music an efficient means of healing? Can disease be hindered by melodies? Music has been used as a means of therapy through the centuries to heal all kinds of diseases and disorders by various peoples, in spite of discussions about it. Turkish communities have also been practicing music therapy since the pre-Islamic era. Kam, the Turkish shaman tried to get into relation with the spirits of the other world by means of his or her davul, the drum and oyun, the ritual ceremony; hence they tried to benefit from their supernatural powers. The kam tried to affect the spirits by utilizing music, either driving evil spirits away, or attracting the help of good spirits so as to achieve treatment.
Sunday, May 5, 2013
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Pengaruh Arsitektur Islam Zaman Khilafah Ustmaniyah di Awal Peradaban Modern

The extent to which the great Ottoman Empire influenced the rest of Europe can still be seen from the buildings it has left behind, explains architecture and design expert Jonathan Glancey. Driving throughout Istanbul, he marvels at the innumerable construction works and wonders whether the built-up area will ever stop, if it will go all the way to the Balkans, Greece and Italy?
The link is easily made when one recalls the influence of Ottoman architecture, especially that exerted by Sinan in the 16th century on Renaissance Italy. Sinan was a contemporary of Michelangelo and Andrea Palladio, two of the most influential Italian architects, and the traces of his designs can be found in some of their works. However, his is at present little known in the West. Yet not only did Sinan shape some of the world's finest buildings, such as the Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, his work was also to influence that of the most ambitious architects of the Italian Renaissance, as theirs was to affect his.
Figure 1: The Suleymaniye Mosque Complex in Istanbul is one of the greatest Ottoman architectural achievements. Located on the second Hill of Istanbul, it is the second largest mosque in the city and one of the best-known sights of Istanbul. The Suleymaniye Mosque was built on the order of Sultan Suleiman I by the great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan between 1550 and 1557. (Source).
Besides the various connections in politics, culture and trade between the Ottoman Empire and Renaissance Europe, scholars had documented the mutual architectural influence that existed between these two powers of early modern times.
Michelangelo's dome in Rome, was surely influenced by those of Sinan's daring mosques in Istanbul. Equally, it seems possible that Sinan would have seen drawings by the Italians.
Palladio's champion and patron, Marcantonio Barbaro, was for six years the Venetian ambassador to Istanbul. It is quite possible that he made some sort of connection between Sinan and Palladio, the architect of the magnificent Church of St Giorgio Maggiore in Venice.
This connection had already been traced by recent scholarship and several publications have shown the multiple aspects of the "Islamic" presence and impact in the culture, art and architecture of Venice in particular, and Italy, in general, in the Middle Ages and early modern period. These works provide the context and the background to any possible impact that Sinan's architecture may have had on Renaissance Italy.
Figure 2: Interior dome view of the Suleymaniye Mosque. The main dome is 53 meters high and has a diameter of 26.5 meters. At the time it was built, the dome was the highest in the Ottoman Empire, when measured from sea level. (Source).
In her book Venice and the East: The Impact of the Islamic World on Venetian Architecture (1100-1500), Deborah Howard proposes a wide-ranging approach in which the author uncovers and examines the reflections of the Islamic world in Venice between 1100 and 1500, particularly as they appear in architecture and architectural decoration. Going beyond the usual art history publications that establish artistic influence by comparing visual motifs, Howard's concerns go deeper into the consideration of the many possible methods of transmitting ideas about distant places, such as incorporating images into architectural decoration or utilizing civic spaces in unfamiliar ways. Her thorough discussions of the complexity and indefiniteness of these processes turn her book into nothing less than a study of the phenomenon of cultural transmission.
There are many sites in Venice featured in Howard's book where Islamic influence can be seen. Examples are not limited to specific architectural forms, but include many types of references that are understood to "emulate" other cities and monuments rather than imitating them. A chapter on San Marco, for example, focuses on references to Egypt, and to Alexandria in particular, in the mosaic decorations as well as including a section on Islamic architectural forms found in the building. Another chapter looks at Venice as a mercantile centre and finds characteristics of the emporia of the Islamic world in both its plan and its buildings.
Figure 3: View from Piazza San Marco in Venice of the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore. The basilica was designed by the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580). Its construction was begun in 1566 and was not entirely finished before his death in 1580. Its design was probably inspired by Sinan's architecture. (Source).
The section on Venetian palaces, in addition to a traditional tracking of specific architectural motifs such as ogee arches and mihrab windows, moves beyond the normal scope of art history to consider how such borrowings were perceived by a Venetian audience as signifiers of eastern experiences and social place. The unusual design and decoration of the Palazzo Ducale are shown to allude to the architecture of the Mamluks, as part of imagery meant to establish Venice as the heart of a vast global trading arena. A final chapter explores Venice as part of the pilgrimage route, which placed her in a constant comparative relationship to the Holy Land. The Venetian built environment is seen as emulating sacred locations, rather than directly copying them, until the city became a "flickering mirage" of Jerusalem.
In another vein, Stefano Carboni, author of Venice and the Islamic World (828-1797), narrates the passionate story of the links that existed between Venice and the Islamic lands in pre-modern times. From 828 CE, when Venetian merchants carried home from Alexandria the stolen relics of St. Mark, to the fall of the Venetian Republic to Napoleon in 1797, the visual arts in Venice were dramatically influenced by Islamic art. Because of its strategic location on the Mediterranean, Venice had long imported objects from the Near East through channels of trade, and it flourished during this particular period as a commercial, political, and diplomatic hub. This monumental book examines Venice's rise as the "bazaar of Europe" and how and why the city absorbed artistic and cultural ideas that originated in the Islamic world.
Venice and the Islamic World features a wide range of fascinating images and objects, including paintings and drawings by familiar Venetian artists such as Bellini, Carpaccio, and Tiepolo; beautiful Persian and Ottoman miniatures; and inlaid metalwork, ceramics, lacquer ware, gilded and enamelled glass, textiles, and carpets made in the Serene Republic and the Mamluk, Ottoman, and Safavid Empires. Together, these exquisite objects illuminate the ways Islamic art inspired Venetian artists, whilst also highlighting Venice's own relationships with its neighbouring region. Fascinating essays by distinguished scholars and conservators offer new historical and technical insights into this unique artistic relationship between East and West.
Resources and References
BBC Links
Articles on Sinan and Ottoman architecture published on www.MuslimHeritage.com
Related publications
  • Auld, Sylvia, Renaissance Venice, Islam and Mahmud the Kurd: A Metalworking Enigma, Altajir World of Islam Trust, 2004, 344 pp.
  • Brothers, C., "The Renaissance Reception of the Alhambra: The Letters of Andrea Navagero and the Palace of Charles V", Muqarnas (Brill) vol. 11, 1994, pp. 78-102.
  • Carboni, Stefano, Venice and the Islamic World, 828-1797, Yale University Press, 2007, 375 pages.
  • De Osa, Veronica, Sinan the Turkish Michelangelo, New York: Vantage Press, 1982.
  • FSTC, Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic.
  • FSTC, Bringing to Life the Islamic History of Europe: A Video Documentary.
  • Howard, Deborah, Venice and the East. The Impact of the Islamic World on Venetian Architecture 1100-1500, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000, 272 pp.
  • Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition, 1996 (first published 1896). See Part III. Read online here.
  • Necipoglu, Gülru, The Age of Sinan, London: Reaktion Press, 2005.

by: The Editorial Board, Fri 19 February, 2010
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